Bộ Luật dân sự 2015 Tiếng Anh: The Civil Code Law 2015

Bộ Luật dân sự 2015 Tiếng Anh: The Civil Code Law 2015Bộ Luật dân sự 2015 Tiếng Anh (The Civil Code Law 2015)

On 24 November 2015, the National Assembly passed the new Civil Code 2015, a leading code governing all civil relations in the society, which will take effective and replace the current one on 1 January 2017.
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
The Law No. 91/2015/QH13
Hanoi, November 24, 2015
CIVIL CODE
Pursuant to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam;
The National Assembly promulgates a Civil Code.
PART ONE
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Chapter I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1. Scope 
The Civil Code provides the legal status, legal standards for the conduct of natural and juridical persons; the rights and obligations of natural and juridical person (hereinafter referred to as persons) regarding personal and property rights and obligations in relations established on the basis of equality, freedom of will, independence of property and self-responsibility (hereinafter referred to as civil relations).
Article 2. Recognition, respect, protection and guarantee of civil rights
1. In the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, all civil rights are recognized, respected, protected and guaranteed under the Constitution and law.
2. Civil rights may be limited as prescribed in law in exceptional circumstances that due to national defense and security, social safety and order, social ethics and the community's health.
Article 3. Basic principles of civil law
1. Every person shall be equal in civil relations, may not use any reason for unequal treatment to others, and enjoy the same protection policies of law regarding moral rights and economic rights.
2. Each person establishes, exercises/fulfills and terminates his/her civil rights and obligations on the basis of freely and voluntarily entering into commitments and/or agreements. Each commitment or agreement that does not violate regulations of law and is not contrary to social ethics shall be bound by contracting parties and must be respected by other entities.
3. Each person must establish, exercise/ fulfill, or terminate his/her civil rights and/or obligations in the principle of goodwill and honesty.
4. The establishment, exercise and termination of civil rights and/or obligations may not infringe national interests, pubic interests, lawful rights and interests of other persons.
5. Each person shall be liable for his/her failure to fulfill or the incorrect fulfillment of any such civil obligations.
Article 4. Application of the Civil Code 
1. This Law is a common law that applies to civil relations.
2. Any relevant law that applies to civil relations in specific fields may not be contrary to the basic principle of civil law prescribed in Article 3 of this Law.
3. If another relevant law has no regulation or has regulations that infringe Clause 2 of this Article, the regulations of this Law shall apply.
4. In cases where an international agreement to which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a signatory contains provisions different from the provisions of this Code with regard to a same matter, the provisions of such agreement shall apply.
Article 5. Application of practices
1. Practices mean rules of conduct obvious to define rights and obligations of persons in specific civil relations, forming and repeating in a long time, recognized and applying generally in a region, race, or a community or a field of civil.
2. In cases where it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties, practices may apply but they must not contravene the principles provided for in Article 3 of this Code.
Article 6. Application of analogy of law
1. In cases where a issue rises under scope of civil law which it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties nor, nor applied by practices, analogy of law shall apply.
2. In cases where it is neither provided for by law nor agreed upon by the parties, practices may apply but they must not contravene the principles provided for in Article 3 of this Code.
Article 7. State policies on civil relations
1. The establishment, performance and termination of civil rights and obligations must ensure the preservation of national identities, respect and promote good customs, practices and traditions, solidarity, mutual affection and cooperation, the principle of every individual for the community and the community for every individual and the noble ethical values of ethnicities living together on Vietnamese soil.
2. In civil relations, the conciliation between contracting parties in accordance with regulations of law shall be encouraged.
Chapter II
ESTABLISHMENT, EXERCISE AND PROTECTION OF CIVIL RIGHTS 
Article 8. Bases for establishment of civil rights 
Civil rights shall be established on the following bases:
1. Contracts;
2. Unilateral legal acts;
3. Decisions of courts or other competent state agencies as prescribed;
4. Outcomes of labor, production and business; or creation of subjects of intellectual property rights;
5. Possession of property;
6. Illegal use of assets or illegal gain therefrom;
7. Damage caused by an illegal act;
8. Performance of a task without authorization;
9. Other bases specified by law.
Article 9. Exercise of civil rights 
1. Each person shall exercise his/her civil on his/her own will in accordance with Article 3 and Article 10 of this Code.
2. The non-exercise of civil rights does not constitute a basis for termination of those rights, unless otherwise prescribed by law.
Article 10. Limitations on exercise of civil rights 
1. Each person may not abuse his/her own civil rights to cause damage to other persons or violate his/her own obligations or for other unlawful purposes.
2. If a person fails to comply with Clause 1 of this Article, a court or a competent agency shall, according to the nature and consequences of the violation, either protect part or the whole of his/her rights, compel him/her to given compensation and other sanctions as prescribed by law.
Article 11. Methods for protecting civil rights
If a person has his/her civil rights violated, he/she may protect them himself/herself as prescribed in this Code, other relevant laws or request competent authorities to:
1. Recognize, respect, protect and guarantee of his/her civil rights;
2. Order the termination of the act of violation;
3. Order a public apology and/or rectification;
4. Order the performance of civil obligations;
5. Order compensation for damage;
6. Cancellation of isolated unlawful decision of competent agencies, organizations or persons;
7. Other requirements specified by law.
Article 12. Self-protection of civil rights
The self-protection of a particular civil right must conform to the nature and severity of the violation against such civil right and be not contrary to basic principles of civil law prescribed in Article 3 of this Code.
Article 13. Compensation for damage
Each person has his/her civil rights violated shall be eligible for total damage, unless otherwise agreed by parties or unless otherwise prescribed by law.
Article 14. Protection of civil rights by competent authorities
1. Each court and a competent authority must respect and protect civil rights of persons.
If a particular civil right is violated or is under a dispute, the protection of such right shall be implemented as prescribed in procedural law at the court or arbitrator.
The protection of civil rights under administrative procedures shall be implemented as prescribed by law. A decision on settlement of case/matter under administrative procedures may be re-examined at a court.
2. Each court may not refuse to settle a civil matter or case with the season that there is no provision of law to apply; in this case, regulations in Article 5 and Article 6 of this Code shall apply.
Article 15. Cancellation of isolated unlawful decisions of competent agencies, organizations or persons
A court or a competent authority is entitled to cancel an isolated decision of another competent agency, organization or person, upon a request for protection of civil rights.
If the isolated decision is cancelled, the civil right against which the decision violates shall be restored and protected by the methods prescribed in Article 11 of this Code.
Chapter III
NATURAL PERSONS
Section 1. LEGAL PERSONALITY AND LEGAL CAPACITY OF NATURAL PERSONS
Article 16. Legal personality of natural persons
1. The legal personality of a natural person is his/her capability to have civil rights and civil obligations.
2. All individuals shall have the same legal personality.
3. The legal personality of a natural person commences at birth and terminates at death.
Article 17. Contents of the legal personality of a natural person
1. Personal rights not associated with property, and personal rights associated with property.
2. Ownership rights, inheritance rights and other rights with respect to property.
3. Rights to participate in civil relations and to assume obligations arising out of such relations.
Article 18. No restrictions on the legal personality of natural persons
The legal personality of a natural person shall not be restricted, unless otherwise provided for by law.
Article 19. Legal capacity of natural persons
The legal capacity of a natural person is his/her capability to establish and exercise civil rights and perform civil obligations through his/her acts.
Article 20. Adults
1. Adults are persons who are eighteen years of age or older.
2. Each adult shall have full legal capacity, except for the cases prescribed in Articles 22, 23 and 24 of this Code.
Article 21. Minors
1. Minors are persons who are under eighteen years of age.
2. Civil transactions of each child under six years of age shall be established and performed by his/her legal representative.
3. Each person who is from six to under eighteen years of age must have the consent of his/her legal representative to enter in and perform civil transactions, except for civil transactions which are performed for the purpose of meeting the needs of daily life suitable for the age group.
4. Each person who is from fifteen to under eighteen years of age is entitled to enter in and perform civil transactions by himself/herself, except for civil transactions related to real estate, movables required registration and other civil transactions as prescribed by law that are subject to the consent of his/her legal representative.
Article 22. Lack of legal capacity
1. A court shall, based on the opinion of forensic-psychiatric examination by any authorized organization and at the request of a person with related rights or interests or a relevant agency or organization, issue a decision to declare a legally incapacitated person who as a result of his/her mental or other illnesses cannot realize or conduct his/her actions.
Where the basis on which a person has been declared incapacitated no longer exists, the court shall, at the request of such person or any person with related rights or interests, issue a decision to revoke the decision declaring the incapacitated person.
2. All civil transactions of a legally incapacitated person shall be established and performed by his/her legal representative.
Article 23. Persons with limited cognition or behavior control
1. A court shall, based on the opinion of forensic-psychiatric examination by any authorized organization and at the request of a person with related rights or interests or a relevant agency or organization, issue a decision to declare an adult with limited cognition or behavior control due to his/her physical or spiritual condition, and appoint a legal guardian and define rights and obligations of such guardian.
2. Where the basis on which a person has been declared limited cognition or behavior control no longer exists, the court shall, at the request of such person or any person with related rights or interests, issue a decision to revoke the decision declaring the person with limited cognition or behavior control.
Article 24. Persons with limited legal capacity
1. A court shall, at the request of a person with related rights or interests or a relevant agency or organization, issue a decision to declare a person with limited legal capacity after excessive drug consumption or other psychotropic substances, worsening material situation of the family.
The court shall appoint a legal representative of the person with limited legal capacity and the representation scope.
2. All civil transactions related to the property of a person with limited legal capacity declared by a court must obtain the consent of his/her legal representative, except for transactions to meet the needs of daily life.
3. Where the basis on which a person has been declared limited capacity of exercise no longer exists, the court shall, at the request of such person or any person with related rights or interests, issue a decision to revoke the decision declaring the incapacitated person.
Section 2. PERSONAL RIGHTS
Article 25. Personal rights
1. Personal rights specified in this Code are civil rights inherent to each natural person, which cannot be transferred to other persons, unless otherwise provided for by other laws.
2. All civil relations relating to personal rights of a minor, a legally incapacitated persons, or a person with limited cognition or behavior control shall be established and performed with the consent of his/her legal representative as prescribed in this Code, other relevant laws or decisions of a court.
All civil relations relating to personal rights of a person declared missing or dead shall be established and performed with the consent of his/her spouse or adult children; or his/her parents if he/she has no spouse or child, unless otherwise provided for by this Code or other relevant laws.
Article 26. Right to have family and given names
1. Each natural person has right to have a family name and a given name (including a middle name, if any). The family and given names of a person shall be the family and given names in the birth certificate of such person.
2. The family name of a person shall be passed from his/her biological father's or mother’s as mutually agreed between the parents; if the parents fails to agree, the person’s family name shall be determined according to customary practices. If the father of such person is undetermined, his/her family name shall be passed from his/her natural mother’s.
If an abandoned child whose natural parents are unidentified is adopted, his/her family name shall be passed from his/her adoptive father’s or mother’s as mutually agreed between the parents. If the child has either an adoptive father or an adoptive mother, his/her family name shall be passed from such person’s.
If an abandoned child whose natural parents are unidentified and he/she has not been adopted but has been fostered by a foster establishment or a , his/her family name shall be determined at the request of the head of such foster family or at the request of the person registering the birth of the child.
Biological father and mother specified in this Code means a father and mother determined at the event of parturition; intended father and mother and the resulting child as prescribed in the Law on marriage and families.
3. The naming is restricted in case it violates lawful rights and interests of other people and contravenes basic principles of civil law prescribed in Article 3 of this Code.
The name of each Vietnamese citizen must be in Vietnamese or other ethnic minority languages of Vietnam and not include any figure or any symbol other than a letter.
4. Each natural person shall enter in and perform his/her civil rights and obligations following his/her family and given name.
5. A person may not use his/her code name or pen name to cause damage to the lawful rights and interests of other people.
Article 27. Right to change family names
1. An individual has the right to request a competent authority to recognize a change of a family name in any of the following cases:
a) Changing the family name of a natural child from biological father’s to biological mother's or vice versa;
b) Changing the family name of an adopted child from biological father’s or mother’s to adoptive father's or mother’s at the request of the adoptive parents;
c) If a person ceases to be an adopted child and such person or his/her biological father or mother request to reclaim the family name which is given by the biological father or mother;
d) Changing the family name of a person whose biological parents have been identified upon the request on that father or mother or such person;
dd) Changing the family name of a lost person who has discovered the origin of his/her bloodline;
e) Changing the family name of a person to his/her spouse’s in the marriage and family relations involving foreign elements in accordance with law of the country in which the foreign spouse is a citizen or retrieves his/her family name before the change;
g) Changing the family names of children upon the change of family names of their father’s or mother’s;
h) Other cases prescribed in by law on civil status affairs.
2. The changing of the family name of a person who is nine years of age or older shall be subject to the consent of such person.
3. The changing of a family name shall not change or terminate the civil rights and obligations which were established in the former family name.
Article 28. Right to change given names
1. An individual has the right to request a competent authority to recognize the change of a given name in any of the following cases:
a) Where it is so requested by the person who has a given name which causes confusion or has an adverse effect on his/her feelings or on his/her honor, legitimate rights and interests;
c) Where the adoptive father or mother of the person wishes to change the given name of their adopted child; of if a person ceases to be an adopted child and such person or his/her biological father or mother request to reclaim the given name which is given by the biological father or mother;
d) Changing the given name of a person whose biological parents have been identified upon the request on that father or mother or such person;
dd) Changing the given name of a lost person who has discovered the origin of his/her bloodline;
dd) Change the given name of a person to his/her spouse’s in the marriage and family relations involving foreign elements in accordance with law of the country in which the foreign spouse is a citizen retrieves his/her family name before the change;
e) Changing of given name of a person whose gender identity is re-determined or a transgender person;
g) Other cases prescribed in by law on civil status affairs.
2. The changing of the given name of a person who is nine years of age or older shall be subject to the consent of such person.
3. The changing of a given name shall not change or terminate the civil rights and obligations which were established in the former given name.
Article 29. Right to indentify and re-identify ethnicity
1. Each individual has the right to identify and re-identify his/her ethnicity.
2. Each individual shall have his/her ethnicity identified at birth in accordance with the ethnicity of his/her biological father and mother. Where the biological father and mother belong to two different ethnic groups, the ethnicity of the child shall be passed from the father’s or mother’s as mutually agreed between the parents; if the parents fail to agree, the ethnicity of the child shall be identified in accordance with relevant customary practices; if the customary practices are different, the ethnicity of the child shall be identified in accordance with the customary practice of smaller ethnic minority.
If an abandoned child whose natural parents are unidentified is adopted, his/her ethnicity shall be passed from his/her adoptive father’s or mother’s as mutually agreed between the parents. If the child has either an adoptive father or an adoptive mother, his/her ethnicity shall be passed from such person’s.
If an abandoned child whose natural parents are unidentified and he/she has not been adopted but has been fostered by a foster establishment, his/her ethnicity shall be identified at the request of the head of such foster family or at the request of the person temporarily fostering the child at the time when the birth of the child is registered.
3. An individual has the right to request a competent authority to identify or re-identify the ethnicity in any of the following cases:
a) Re-identification of the ethnicity of the biological father or mother where they belong to two different ethnic groups;
b) Re-identification of the ethnicity of the biological father or mother where the adoptive child have their biological parents identified.
4. The re-identification of the ethnicity of a person who is from fifteen to eighteen years of age shall be subject to the consent of such person.
5. It is forbidden to abuse the ethnicity re-identification intended to profiteering or divisive, prejudicial to the unity of the ethnic groups of Vietnam.
Article 30. Right to declaration of birth and death
1. When an individual is born, he/she has the right to have his/her birth declared.
2. When an individual dies, he/she has the right to have his/her death declared.
3. If a newborn dies after 24 hours or later from the time of birth, his/her birth and death must be declared; if he/she dies under 24 hours from the time of birth, his/her birth and death are not required to be declared, unless his/her biological father or mother request.
4. The declaration of birth and death shall be prescribed in by law on civil status affairs.
Article 31. Right to nationality
1. Each individual has the right to nationality.
2. The identification, change, acquirement, renouncement, or assume of Vietnamese nationality shall be stipulated in the Law on Vietnamese nationality.
3. Rights of each non-nationality resident within Vietnam’s territory shall be guaranteed as prescribed by law.
Article 32. Rights of an individual with respect to his/her image
1. Each individual has rights with respect to his/her own image.
The use of an image of an individual must have his/her consent.
When an image of an individual is used for commercial purposes, that person is eligible for a remuneration, unless otherwise agreed.
2. The use of image for any of the following purposes needs not the consent of the image’s owner or his/her legal representative:
a) For national and public benefits;
b) For public activities, including conventions, seminars, sports activities, art shows and other public activities that do not infringe the honor, dignity or prestige of the image’s owner.
3. If the use of an image violates the regulation prescribed in this Article, the image’s owner has the right to request a court to issue a decision that compel the violator or relevant entities to revoke, destroy or terminate the use of the image, compensate for damage and adopt other measures as prescribed in law.
Article 33. Right to life, right to safety of life, health and body
1. Each individual has the right to life, the inviolable right to life and body, the right to health protection by law. No one shall be killed illegally.
2. When any person has a life threatening accident or illness, a person who discovers such situation must take such person or require suitable entities to a nearest health facility; the health facility must provide medical examination and treatment in accordance with law on medical examination and treatment.
3. The consent of a person is required for the anesthesia, surgery, amputation, transplant of his/her tissues or bodily organs; the application of new medical cures to that person; medical, pharmacy or scientific testing or any method of testing on a human body.
If the person is a minor, a legally incapacitated person, a person with limited cognition or behavior control or an unconscious patient, the consent of his/her father, mother, spouse, grown child or legal guardian is required; in cases where there is a threat to the life of the patient which cannot wait for the consent of the aforesaid persons, a decision of the head of the health facility is required.
4. A post-mortem operation shall be performed in any of the following cases:
a) The deceased person expressed consent prior to death;
b) In the absence of such consent, the consent of a parent, spouse, grown child or legal guardian of the deceased was obtained;
c) In necessary cases, pursuant to a decision of the head of the health facility or a competent authority as prescribed in law.
Article 34. Right to protection of honor, dignity and prestige
1. Honor, dignity and prestige of an individual is inviolable and protected by law.
2. Each individual has the right to request a court to reject any piece of information adversely affecting to his/her honor, dignity and/or prestige.
The honor, dignity and prestige of a deceased person shall be protected at the request of his/her spouse or grown children; or his/her parent if he/she has no spouse or child, unless otherwise prescribed by law.
3. If a piece of information adversely affecting to the honor, dignity and prestige of a person is posted on a mean of mass media, that piece of information shall be removed or rectified by that kind of mean. If that piece of information is kept by an agency, organization or individual, such entity is required to cancel it.
4. In case it is impossible to identify the person informing the information adversely affecting the honor, dignity and/or prestige of a person, the latter person has the right to request a court to declare that such piece of information is incorrect.
5. The person receiving the information adversely affected his/her honor, dignity and/or prestige both has the right to request rejection of such piece of information and has the right to require to informing person gives a public apology and rectification and compensation.
Article 35. Right to donate or receive human tissues and body organs and donate corpses
1. Each individual has the right to donate his/her tissues or body organs when he/she is alive or donate his/her tissues, body organs or corpse after his/her death for the purpose of medical treatment of other persons or medical, pharmacy or other scientific researches.
2. Each individual has the right to receive tissues and/or body organs of other persons for his/her medical treatment. Health facilities and juridical persons competent to scientific research have the right to receive human body organs and/or corpses for the purpose of medical treatment or medical, pharmacy or other scientific researches.
3. The donation or removal of human tissues and body organs and donation or removal of corpses must comply with statutory requirements and regulations of this Code, the Law on donation, removal and transplantation of human tissues and organs, and donation or removal of corpses and other relevant laws.
Article 36. Right to re-determine gender identity
1. An individual has the right to re-determine his/her gender identity.
The re-determination of the gender identity of a person is implemented where the gender of such person is subject to a congenital defect or has not yet been accurately formed and requires medical intervention in order to identify clearly the gender.
2. The re-determination of the gender identity of a person shall comply with regulations of law.
3. Each individual undergone re-determination of gender identity has the right and obligation to apply for change of civil status affairs as prescribed in law on civil status affairs and has the personal rights in conformity with the re-determined gender identity as prescribed in this Code and relevant laws.
Article 37. Sex reassignment
The sex reassignment shall comply with regulations of law. Each surged transgender has the right and obligation to apply for change of civil status affairs as prescribed in law on civil status affairs and has the personal rights in conformity with the transformed gender as prescribed in this Code and relevant laws.
Article 38. Right to private life, personal secrets and family secrets
1. The private life, personal secrets and family secrets of a person are inviolable and protected by law.
2. The collection, preservation, use and publication of information about the private life of an individual must have the consent of that person; the collection, preservation, use and publication of information about the secrets of family must have the consent of all family’s members, unless otherwise prescribed by law.
3. The safety of mails, telephones, telegrams, other forms of electronic information of an individual shall be ensured and kept confidential.
The opening, control and keeping of mails, telephones, telegrams, other forms of electronic information of an individual may only be conducted in cases provided by law.
4. Contracting parties of a contract may not disclose information about each other's private life, personal secrets or family secrets that they know during the establishment and performance of the contract, unless otherwise agreed.
Article 39. Personal rights in marriage and families
1. Each individual has the right to marry or divorce, the right to equality between husband and wife, the right to acknowledge father, mother or child, the right to adopt children and be adopted in marriage relation, parent-children relation and relations between family’s members.
All children, of the same parents, regardless of their parents’ marriage status, have the same rights and obligations to their parents.
2. Each individual exercises his/her personal rights in marriage and families as prescribed in this Code, the Law on marriage and families and relevant laws.
Section 3. PLACE OF RESIDENCE
Article 40. Place of residence of individuals
1. The place of residence of an individual is the place where such person usually lives.
2. In cases where it is impossible to determine an individual's place of residence as provided for in Clause 1 of this Article, his/her place of residence shall be the place where such person is currently living.
3. If a party, in a particular civil relation, changes his/her place of residence in association with his/her exercise of right or fulfillment of obligation, he/she must notify the other of the new place of residence.
Article 41. Place of residence of minors
1. The place of residence of a minor is the place of residence of his/her parents; if the parents have separate places of residence, the place of residence of the minor shall be the place of residence of the father or mother with whom the minor usually lives.
2. A minor may have a place of residence separate from the place of residence of his/her parents if so agreed by his/her parents or so provided for by law.
Article 42. Place of residence of wards
1. The place of residence of a ward is the place of residence of his/her guardian.
2. A ward may have a place of residence separate from the place of residence of his/her guardian if so agreed by the guardian or so provided for by law.
Article 43. Places of residence of husbands and wives
1. The place of residence of a husband and wife is the place where the husband and the wife usually live together.
2. A husband and a wife may have separate places of residence if they so agree upon.
Article 44. Places of residence of military personnel
1. The place of residence of a military personnel member currently performing his/her military service is the place at which his/her military personnel's unit is stationed.
2. The place of residence of a/an army officer, regular member of military personnel, defense worker or official is the place at which his/her unit is stationed, except in cases where he/she has a place of residence as specified in Clause 1 Article 40 of this Code.
Article 45. Place of residence of persons performing itinerant occupations
The place of residence of a person performing an itinerant occupation on a ship, boat or other means for itinerant work is the place of registration of such ship, boat or means, unless he/she has a place of residence specified in Clause 1 Article 40 of this Code.
Section 4. GUARDIANSHIP
Article 46. Guardianship
1. Guardianship means an individual or organization (hereinafter referred collectively to as guardian) is required by law or appointed to take care of and protect legitimate rights and interests of a minor or a legally incapacitated person or a person with limited cognition and behavior control (hereinafter referred to as a ward).
2. When a person with limited cognition and behavior control is capable of expressing his/her will anytime when he/she requests the guardianship, his/her consent is required.
3. The guardianship must be registered at a competent authority as prescribed in law on civil status affairs.
Natural guardians must fulfill their obligations regardless of their registration of guardianship.
Article 47. Wards
1. Wards include:
a) Minors who have lost their mothers and fathers, or whose parents are unidentifiable;
b) Minors whose parents are both incapacitated persons; parents have limited cognition or behavior control; parents have limited capacity of exercise; parents have their parental rights restricted by a court; and parents do not have the means to care for or educate such minor and the parents request the minor to be a ward;
c) Incapacitated persons;
d) Persons with limited cognition or behavior control.
2. A person may only be a ward of one guardian, except where the guardians are parents in charge of one child or grandparents in charge of one grandchild.
Article 48. Guardians
1. Each natural person or juridical person who meets all requirements prescribed in this Code is entitled to be a guardian.
2. If a person with full legal capacity chooses a guardian for him/her, such guardian shall be selected if the person needs the guardianship with the consent of the ward. The selection of guardian must be made in writing and notarized or certified.
3. Each natural or juridical person may be a guardian of multiple persons.
Article 49. Requirements for natural persons to be guardians
Each natural person who meets all of the following requirements may act as a guardian:
1. Having full legal capacity;
2. Having good ethics and necessary means to exercise rights and fulfill obligations of a guardian;
3. Not being a person facing a criminal prosecution or a person who has been convicted but his/her criminal record has been not expunged for a deliberate crime of violation of life, health, honor, dignity or property of another person;
4. Not being a person having parental rights to minor child restricted by a court.
Article 50. Requirements for juridical persons to be guardians
Each juridical person who meets all of the following requirements may act as a guardian:
1. Having civil legal personality in conformity with the guardianship;
2. Having necessary means to exercise rights and fulfill obligations of a guardian.
Article 51. Supervision of guardianship
1. The relatives of a ward shall have the responsibility to appoint a representative to supervise the guardianship in among the relatives or appoint another natural or juridical person to act as a guardianship supervisor.
The appointment of guardianship supervisor must have the consent of such person.
If the supervision relates to management of property of the ward, the supervisor must register it at the People’s Committee of commune where the ward resides.
Relatives of a ward means his/her spouse, parents and children; if there is no such person, relatives of the ward means his/her grandparents and biological siblings; if there is also no such person, relatives of the ward means his/her biological uncles and aunts.
2. If there is no relative of a ward or the relatives fails to appoint a guardianship supervisor as prescribed in Clause 1 of this Article, the People’s Committees of commune where the guardian resides shall appoint a natural or juridical person to supervise the guardianship. If there is a dispute over the appointment of guardianship supervisor, it shall be subject to a court's decision.
3. Each supervisor being natural person must have full legal capacity, each supervisor being juridical person must have legal personality in conformity with the supervision; the supervisor must have necessary means to conduct the supervision.
4. Each guardianship supervisor has the following rights and obligations:
a) Monitory and inspect the guardian in the guardianship;
b) Examine and offer opinions in writing in terms of establishment and performance of civil transactions prescribed in Article 59 of this Code.
c) Request a regulatory agency in charge of guardianship to change or terminate the guardianship or supervision of guardianship.
Article 52. Natural guardians of minors
A natural guardian of a minor prescribed in Points a and b Clause 1 Article 47 of this Code shall be determined as follows:
1. The eldest brother or sister shall be the guardian of the ward; if the eldest brother or sister fails to satisfy all requirements for acting as a guardian, the next eldest brother or sister shall be the guardian, unless otherwise agreed that another biological brother or sister shall be the guardian;
2. If there is no guardian prescribed in Clause 1 of this Article, the paternal grandfather, grandmother or the maternal grandfather, grandmother shall be the guardian; or those persons shall agree to appoint a person or some persons to be guardian(s);
3. If there is no guardian prescribed in Clause 1 and Clause 2 of this Article, a biological uncle or aunt of the ward shall be the guardian.
Article 53. Natural guardians of incapacitated persons
If there is no guardian prescribed in Clause 2 Article 48 of this Code, the natural guardian of a legally incapacitated person shall be determined as follows:
1. If a wife is a legally incapacitated person, her husband shall be the guardian; if a husband is a legally incapacitated person, her wife shall be the guardian;
2. If both parents are incapacitated persons or either of them is a legally incapacitated person and the other does not fully meet requirements to be a guardian, the eldest child shall be the guardian; if the eldest child does not fully meet the requirements to be a guardian, the next eldest child shall be the guardian;
3. If an adult being a legally incapacitated person has no spouse or child or such person has spouse or children but they do not fully meet the requirements to be a guardian, his/her father and/or mother shall be the guardian.
Article 54. Appointment of guardians
1. If a minor or a legally incapacitated person has no guardian as prescribed in Article 52 and 53 of this Code, the People’s Committee of commune where such person resides must appoint a guardian for the ward.
If there is a dispute between guardians prescribed in Article 52 and Article 53 of this Code in terms of guardians or appointment of guardians, a court shall appoint the guardian.
The expectation of a minor aged 6 years or older in terms of his/her guardian must be considered.
2. The appointment of a guardian must have the consent of such person.
3. The appointment of a guardian must be made in writing, specifying the reason for appointing the guardian, the specific rights and obligations of the guardian and the status of the ward's property.
4. Apart from the cases prescribed in Clause 2 Article 48 of this Code, the guardian of a person with limited cognition and behavior control shall be appointed among the guardians prescribed in Article 53 of this Code by a court. If there is no such person, the court shall appoint another natural or juridical person to be a guardian.
Article 55. Obligations of guardians with regard to wards under fifteen years of age
1. Take care of and educate the ward.
2. Represent the ward in civil transactions, except where it is provided for by law that wards under fifteen years of age can enter in and perform civil transactions by themselves.
3. Manage the property of the ward.
4. Protect legitimate rights and interests of the ward.
Article 56. Obligations of guardians with regard to wards from fifteen to eighteen years of age
1. Represent the ward in civil transactions, except where it is provided for by law that wards from fifteen to eighteen years of age can enter in and perform civil transactions by themselves.
2. Manage the property of the ward, unless otherwise prescribed by law.
3. Protect legitimate rights and interests of the ward.
Article 57. Obligations of guardians with regard to incapacitated persons or person with limited cognition and behavior control
1. The guardian of a legally incapacitated person shall have the following obligations:
a) Take care of and ensure the treatment of illness of the ward;
b) Represent the ward in civil transactions;
c) Manage the property of the ward;
d) Protect legitimate rights and interests of the ward.
2. The guardian of a person with limited cognition and behavior control shall have obligations specified in the decision of a court according to the obligations prescribed in Clause 1 of this Article.
Article 58. Rights of guardians
1. The guardian of a minor or a legally incapacitated person shall have the following rights:
a) Use the property of the ward in order to take care of and pay for the needs of the ward;
b) Receive payment of all necessary expenditures on management of the property of the ward;
c) Represent the ward in the establishment and performance of civil transactions in order to protect legitimate rights and interests of the ward.
2. The guardian of a person with limited cognition and behavior control shall have rights specified in the decision of a court according to the rights prescribed in Clause 1 of this Article.
Article 59. Management of property of wards
1. The guardian of a minor or a legally incapacitated person must manage the property of his/her ward as if it were his/her own property.
The sale, exchange, lease, lending, pledge, mortgage, deposit and other transactions involving the property of the ward, which has a high value, must have the consent of the guardianship supervisor.
The guardian must not donate the property of his/her ward to other persons. Unless the transaction is undertaken for the interests of the ward and the guardianship supervisor consents to the transaction, all civil transactions between the guardian and his/her ward in connection with the latter's property shall be void.
2. The guardian of a person with limited cognition and behavior control shall manage the property of the ward specified in the decision of a court according to guardianship scope prescribed in Clause 1 of this Article.
Article 60. Replacement of guardians
1. A guardian may be replaced in any of the following cases:
a) The guardian no longer meets all of the requirements specified in Article 49 or 50 of this Code;
b) The guardian being a natural person dies or is declared by court limited cognition or behavior control, limited legal capacity, incapacitated, missing or the guardian being a juridical person cease to exist;
c) The guardian seriously violates a guardian's obligation;
d) The guardian proposes his/her replacement and another person agrees to assume the guardianship.
2. In case of replacing a natural guardian, the persons defined in Article 52 and Article 53 of this Code shall assume the role of a natural guardian; if there is no natural guardian, the appointment of a guardian shall comply with the provisions of Article 54 of this Code.
3. The procedures for replacing a guardian shall comply with law on civil status affairs.
Article 61. Transfer of guardianship
1. Upon replacement of a guardian, the person who formally conducted the guardianship must transfer the guardianship to the new replacement within fifteen days as from the date the new guardian is found.
2. The transfer of guardianship must be made in writing, specifying the reason for the transfer and the status of the ward's property at the time of transfer. The agency which appointed the guardian and the guardianship supervisor shall witness the transfer of the guardianship.
3. With regard to replacement of guardian prescribed in Clause 1 Article 60 of this Code, the agency which appointed the guardian shall make a record thereon, clearly stating the status of the ward's property and the rights and obligations which have arisen in the course of performing the guardianship for transfer to the new guardian with the witness of the guardianship supervisor.
Article 62. Termination of guardianship
1. A guardianship shall be terminated in any of the following cases:
a) The ward attains full legal capacity;
b) The ward dies;
c) The ward's father and/or mother have/has fully met the conditions to exercise his/her rights or fulfill his/her obligations;
d) The ward has been adopted.
2. The procedures for termination of guardianship shall comply with law on civil status affairs.
Article 63. Consequences of the termination of guardianship
1. When a ward attains full legal capacity, the guardian shall settle the property with the ward and transfer all rights and obligations arising from civil transactions concluded by the guardian on behalf of that ward within 15 days from the date of termination of guardianship.
2. If a ward dies, the guardian must settle up the property with the ward's heirs or transfer the property to the estate administrator of the ward, or transfer all rights and obligations arising from the civil transactions on behalf of the ward within three months as from the date on which the guardianship terminates; if the ward's heirs are unidentifiable upon the expiry of such time limit, the guardian shall continue to manage the property of the ward until the property has been settled in accordance with the provisions of law on inheritance and shall notify such to the People's Committee of the commune where the ward resides.
3. With regard to termination of guardianship prescribed in Point c and Point d Clause 1 Article 62 of this Code, the guardian shall settle up the property and transfer all rights and obligations arising from the civil transactions on behalf of the ward to the ward’s parent within 15 days from the date of termination of guardianship.
4. The settlement of property and transfer of rights and obligations prescribed in this Article must be made in writing under supervision of the guardianship supervisor.
Section 5. NOTICE OF SEARCH FOR PERSONS WHO ARE ABSENT FROM THEIR PLACES OF RESIDENCE, DECLARATION OF MISSING PERSONS AND DECLARATION OF DEATH
Article 64. Request for notice of search for persons who are absent from their places of residence and the management of their property
When a person has disappeared for six consecutive months or longer, any person with related rights or interests may request a court to issue a notice of search for the person absent from his/her place of residence under the provisions of civil procedure law and may request the court to apply measures for management of the property of the absent person in accordance with the provisions of Article 65 of this Code.
Article 65. Management of property of person absent from his/her place of residence
1. At the request of a person with related rights or interests, a court shall hand over the property of a person absent from his/her place of residence to one of the following persons for management:
a) With respect to property of which the management has been authorized to person by the absent person, such person shall continue to manage the property;
b) With respect to joint property, the remaining co-owner(s) shall manage the property;
c) The property being currently managed by the spouse’s absent person shall continue to be managed by such spouse; if that spouse dies or that spouse is legally incapacitated, has limited cognition or behavior control or has limited legal capacity, his/her adult children or parents shall manage the property.
2. If there is no person defined in Clause 1 of this Article, a court shall appoint a person among the relatives of the absent person to manage his/her property; if the absent person does not have any relative, the court shall appoint another person to manage the property.
Article 66. Obligations of persons managing property of person absent from his/her place of residence
1. Keep and preserve the property of the absent persons as if it were his/her own property.
2. Sell immediately any property being crops or other products being in danger of decay;
3. Perform the absent persons' obligations to pay maintenance their dependents and/or pay due debts or financial obligations with such persons' property under the court's decisions.
4. Return the property to the absent persons upon their return and to notify a court thereof; or compensate for any damage caused during the course of management of the property due to his/her fault.
Article 67. Rights of persons managing property of person absent from his/her place of residence
1. Manage the property of the absent persons.
2. Deduct a portion from the property of the absent person in order to perform the obligations of such person to pay maintenance to his/her dependents, due debts or financial obligations.
3. Receive payment of all necessary expenditures on management of the property of the absent person.
Article 68. Declaration of person missing
1. When a person has disappeared for two consecutive years or longer and there is no reliable information on whether such person is still alive or dead even though notification and search measures have been fully applied in accordance with the civil procedure law, a court may, at the request of a person with related rights or interests, declare such person is missing.
The two-year time limit shall commence from the date the last information on such person is obtained; if the date of the last information cannot be determined, this time limit shall commence from the first day of the month succeeding the month when the last information is received; if the date and month of the last information cannot be determined, this time limit shall commence from the first day of the year succeeding the year when the last information is received.
2. In cases where the wife or the husband of a person who has been declared missing files for a divorce, a court shall grant the divorce as prescribed in law on marriage and family.
3. The decision on declaration of a missing person issued by a court must be sent to the People’s Committees of commune where the missing person last resides for record as prescribed in law on civil status affairs.
Article 69. Management of property of persons declared missing
The person currently managing the property of a person absent from his/her place of residence as provided for in Article 65 of this Code shall continue to manage the property of such person when he/she is declared missing by a court and such person shall have the rights and obligations specified in Article 66 and Article 67 of this Code.
If a court has granted divorce to the wife or the husband of the person who has been declared missing, the property of the missing person shall be handed over to the adult children or to the parents of the missing person for management. If there is no such person, the property shall be handed over to a relative of the missing person for management; if there is no relative, the court shall appoint another person to manage the property.
Article 70. Annulment of decision declaring person missing
1. When a person who has been declared missing returns or when there is reliable information that such person is still alive, a court shall, at the request of such person or a person with related rights or interests, issue a decision on annulment of the decision declaring the person missing.
2. A person who has been declared missing shall, upon his/her return, be permitted to receive his/her property back from the person managing the property after paying the management expenses.
3. If the wife or the husband of a person who has been declared missing has been granted a divorce, the decision granting the divorce shall retain legal effect notwithstanding the return of the person who has been declared missing or the reliable information that such person is still alive.
4. The decision on annulment of a decision declaring a person missing issued by a court must be sent to the People’s Committees of commune where the missing person resides for record as prescribed in law on civil status affairs.
Article 71. Declaration of person dead
1. A person with related rights or interests may request a court to issue a decision declaring that a person is dead in any of the following cases:
a) After three years from the effective date of a court's decision declaring a person missing, there is still no reliable information that such person is alive;
b) The person has disappeared during a war and there is still no reliable information that such person is alive for five years from the end of the war;
c) The person met with an accident, catastrophe or a natural disaster and there is still no reliable information that such person is alive for two years from the end of such accident, catastrophe or natural disaster, unless otherwise provided for by law;
d) The person has been missing for five consecutive years or longer and there is no reliable information that such person is still alive; this time limit shall be calculated in accordance with Clause 1 Article 68 of this Code.
2. A court shall, according to the cases specified in Clause 1 of this Article, determine the date of death of a person declared dead.
3. The decision on declaration of a dead person issued by a court must be sent to the People’s Committees of commune where the dead person resides for record as prescribed in law on civil status affairs.
Article 72. Personal relations and property relations of persons declared dead by courts
1. When a decision of a court declaring that a person is dead becomes legally effective, all marriage and family relations and other personal relations of such person shall be resolved in the same manner as if the person were dead.
2. The property relations of a person who is declared dead by a Court shall be resolved in the same manners as if such person were dead; the property of such person shall be dealt with in accordance with the law on inheritance.
Article 73. Annulment of decision declaring person dead
1. When a person who has been declared dead returns or when there is reliable information that such person is still alive, a court shall, at the request of such person or a person with related rights or interests, issue a decision on annulment of the decision declaring the person dead.
2. The personal relations of the person who has been declared dead shall be restored when a court issues a decision on annulment of the decision which declared that such person was dead, except for the following cases:
a) If the wife or the husband of the person who has been declared dead was permitted by the Court for her or his divorce in accordance with the provisions of Clause 2 Article 68 of this Code, the decision granting the divorce shall remain legally effective;
b) If the wife or the husband of the person who has been declared dead has married to another person, such marriage shall remain legally effective.
3. A person who has been declared dead but is still alive shall have the right to claim his/her property from the persons who received that his/her inheritance and/or the value of the remaining property.
If the heir of a person whom a court has declared dead is aware that such person is still alive, but intentionally conceals such information for the purpose of enjoying the inheritance, he/she must return all of the property received, including any benefits and income derived; if any damage has been caused, he/she must also pay compensation therefor.
4. Property relations between spouses shall be dealt with in accordance with this Code and the Law on marriage and families.
5. The decision on annulment of a decision declaring a person dead issued by a court must be sent to the People’s Committees of commune where the dead person resides for record as prescribed in law on civil status affairs.
ĐỂ XEM HẾT NỘI DUNG BỘ LUẬT, VUI LÒNG TẢI VĂN BẢN THEO LINK TẢI TẠI ĐÂY

Bài liên quan

HỎI VÀ ĐÁP

Tổng số ý kiến
Tên

Anti Virus,11,Âm thanh,4,Bảng lương,22,Bảo hiểm,6,Biểu mẫu,11,Bình luận BLHS,24,Bộ Luật,49,Calendar,9,Cán bộ công chức,35,CMND,15,Cư trú,14,Dân sự,10,Doanh nghiệp,24,Đất đai - Nhà ở,18,Đầu tư - Đấu thầu,19,Ebook,11,Game,3,Giao thông,48,Giấy tờ xe,31,Hệ thống,9,Hình ảnh,14,Hình sự,18,học Tiếng Anh,9,Hộ khẩu,13,Hôn nhân Gia đình,13,Khai sinh,9,Kinh nghiệm pháp lý,9,Lao động,15,Luật cơ bản,92,Luật thuế,21,Luật tiếng Anh,59,Nghĩa vụ quân sự,9,Phần mềm điện thoại,12,Phần mềm PC,92,Quyết định,1,Tải file,21,Thanh tra - Khiếu nại tố cáo,3,Thủ thuật Facebook,19,Thủ tục hành chính,73,Tố tụng hình sự,12,Trắc nghiệm,14,Trực tuyến,6,Văn bản,2132,Văn phòng,14,Video,4,Xây dựng,11,Xử phạt,2,
ltr
item
Tra cứu pháp luật - Thủ thuật phần mềm: Bộ Luật dân sự 2015 Tiếng Anh: The Civil Code Law 2015
Bộ Luật dân sự 2015 Tiếng Anh: The Civil Code Law 2015
Xem toàn văn và tải về Bộ Luật dân sự Việt Nam năm 2015 bản tiếng Anh - The Civil Code Law 2015 of Vietnam.
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-K-VJu7mOZDI/Wz2cg34KBII/AAAAAAAALek/bTugUSsRIlQVaYnM2e4qcioMMrvbaLvmACLcBGAs/s200/civil-law-of-viet-nam-min.png
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-K-VJu7mOZDI/Wz2cg34KBII/AAAAAAAALek/bTugUSsRIlQVaYnM2e4qcioMMrvbaLvmACLcBGAs/s72-c/civil-law-of-viet-nam-min.png
Tra cứu pháp luật - Thủ thuật phần mềm
https://www.tracuuphapluat.info/2018/03/bo-luat-dan-su-tieng-anh-the-civil-code-law.html
https://www.tracuuphapluat.info/
https://www.tracuuphapluat.info/
https://www.tracuuphapluat.info/2018/03/bo-luat-dan-su-tieng-anh-the-civil-code-law.html
true
1624770636553188390
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts Xem tất cả các bài viết Đọc tiếp Trả lời Hủy trả lời Xóa By Trang chủ PAGES Bài viết View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content